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Weeds and Invasive Species

When walking in the bush, many people think that every pretty flower they see is a true native wildflower. Unfortunately, this is far from correct and many of the 'pretty flowers' that can now be seen in bushland areas are Weeds and Introduced Species, many of which have escaped from domestic gardens. This album has been created to develop awareness of the spread of these weeds and introduced species, which in many cases, are displacing our own unique and often endangered Western Australian Wildflowers. For a start we must all take responsibility to protect our unique flora and it is the responsibility of every home gardener to never dump garden waste on vacant land or bushland.

Titles and descriptions have been added where possible and eventually I hope to identify and add more information to other images.

Album by gladysclancy. Photos by Gladys. 1 - 97 of 97 Total. 7327 Visits.
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African Daisies 1
Introduced Species which escape from home gardens to invade native bushland.

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African Daisies 2
Introduced Species which escape from home gardens to invade native bushland. They come in many colour combinations.

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Asparagus Fern
Asparagus Fern or Ground Asparagus (Asparagus aethiopicus).
Originating in South Africa, Asparagus Fern is a multi-branched prostrate perennial shrub or scrambler forming a dense mat of tuberous roots. Branches grow to 60cm with a covering of small spines. Flowers are bell-shaped, white-pale pink clusters, flowering in late summer.
Fruit are red berries to 8mm wide containing 1 to a few black seeds about 4mm in diameter, occurring winter/early spring.
Seeds are spread by birds, water and dumping. Asparagus Fern can also reshoot from rhizome pieces left in the ground or dumped as garden waste. This weed is invasive and poses a significant threat to the bushland environment.


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Barley Grass 1
Barley Grass (Hordeum spp.)
Although providing valuable fodder for stock, Barley Grass is a major weed because it acts as an alternate host for a number of cereal diseases, causes stock health problems, is readily dispersed, and can develop resistance to herbicides.


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Barley Grass 2
Seed head of Barley Grass (Hordeum spp.)

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Blackberry Nightshade 1
Solanum nigrum.
Origin: Native of Europe, Asia and northern Africa.
Dispersal: Spread by seed.


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Blackberry Nightshade 2
Solanum nigrum.
Widespread and very common in Australia. Found in many temperate and tropical regions around the world. One of Australia's worst weeds of intensive agriculture. Competes vigorously for space and nutrients especially in Solanaceae crops such as tomatoes. Known to be host to numerous nematodes, fungi and viruses that are indirectly a threat to associated crops.


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Blackberry Nightshade 3
Solanum nigrum.
Ripe fruit are black. Green fruit and leaves may at times contain toxic alkaloids.


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Blowfly Grass
Briza maxima:
Origin Mediterranean region.
Slender, erect and hairless annual (living only one growth cycle) grass. It has few leaf blades and stands erect.
The leaves are generally paler green in colour than other common grasses and have a noticeable twist. These features are useful for distinguishing Briza as a seedling before the seed heads form.
The seed head/fruit (inflorescence) consists of up to 10 spikelets (resembling blowflys) on very fine stems (pedicels). Spikelets are oval in shape and can be up to 10 - 20 mm in length. Spikelets consist of overlapping layers and a seed is held within each layer. Fruit may be pale green to cream/pale brown depending on maturity.
A node or knee-like structure is present on each stem of mature plants indicating that this is a grass.


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Branched Broomrape (Orobanche)
Orobanche ramosa:
Native of southern Europe, western Asia, Middle East and northern Africa.
Flowers: Pale blue, tubular and two-lipped with lower lip three-lobed and upper lip shallowly two-lobed. An erect spike of flowers appears in spring and summer.
Mature plants to about 20 cm tall with several branches from ground level. Stems with dense soft woolly hairs on the upper part. Leaves reduced to a few brown scales to 8 mm long. Capsule enclosed in persistent corolla. Seeds pepper-like, up to 40,000 per plant.


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Brazilian Pepper Tree 1
Schinus terebinthifolius.
Origin: Native of Argentina, southern Brazil and eastern Paraguay.
Dispersal: Spread by seed, mostly by birds and mammals, also by water.


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Brazilian Pepper Tree 2
Schinus terebinthifolius.
Widely planted as an ornamental and now naturalised in subtropical areas in Australia. Common in south eastern Queensland, increasing in north eastern NSW and common along the Swan River estuary in WA. This species is particularly invasive in disturbed areas but will invade a number of natural environments. Plants may dominate ecosystems preventing growth of native species. A major weed in many sub-tropical countries between 150 and 300 North and South.


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Bridal creeper (Asparagus asparagoides)
Bridal Creeper is a serious, highly invasive environmental weed, destroying large areas of the native vegetation in southern Australia. Native to Ethiopia, Swaziland and the Cape Province, Natal, Orange Free State and Transvaal regions of South Africa. This plant, currently naturalised in Australia, was introduced into the country as a garden plant during the 1870s. It proved popular in floral arrangements, in particular bridal bouquets, giving rise to its common name, and also as a plant for hanging baskets. Bridal creeper is a Weed of National Significance.

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Bridal Creeper, an Introduced Species
Bridal creeper (Asparagus asparagoides), is a 'Declared Plant' in Western Australia.

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Bridal Creeper, an Introduced Species
Bridal creeper (Asparagus asparagoides), introduced by early settlers and now escaped from domestic gardens.

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Burr Medic 1
Burr Medic (Medicago polymorpha) is an annual weed, alien to Western Australia, that can often invade lawns. It is usually hairless with stems up to 60 cm long, and having clusters of two to seven flowers borne on short stems in winter and spring. The leaflets are oblong to heart shaped.

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Burr Medic 2
Seed of Burr Medic (Medicago polymorpha).
The seed pods or burrs are disc-like, or cylindrical in shape, and consist of one to six coils that are densely spined. These burrs when mature and brown can often be painful to step on and attach easily to clothing like socks and shoes and also to pet hair, where the seeds are then spread to other areas.


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Caltrop 1
Tribulus terrestris:
Origin: Native at least of the Mediterranean, now cosmopolitan. One Australian species is probably included under this name.
Flowers/Seedhead: Solitary in the leaf axils, 5-petalled. Flowers summer and autumn in southern Australia.


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Caltrop 2
Prostrate annual with stems to 2 m long. Leaves with 4–8 pairs of oblong leaflets, each leaflet to 12 mm long, the upper surface dark green and often with hairy margins, the lower surface paler and hairy. Fruit 11–20 mm wide (including spines), comprising a cluster of 5 segments each with 2 larger divergent spines above and 2 smaller downward projecting spines below. Each segment with 1–5 seeds.

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Caltrop 3
Distinguishing features: Distinguished by petals 2–10 mm long; style shorter than to slightly longer than length of stigma and fruit with 2 larger and 2 smaller spines per fruit segment.
Dispersal: Spines of fruit segments ensure rapid dissemination of seeds.


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Caltrop 4
A troublesome weed of wasteland, pastoral land, cropping, vineyards and recreation areas. Sharp spines on dry fruit hamper stock handling, are a nuisance in recreation areas and fruit may contaminate drying grapes. Photosensitisation, staggers and nitrate poisoning are also caused by stock grazing Caltrop. Young sheep are especially sensitive.

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Caltrop 5
A native insect and mite damage plants and overseas biological control has been used to reduce problems associated with this species.

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Capeweed 1
Capeweed (Arctotheca calendula).
Origin: Native of South Africa and Lesotho.
Flowers/Seedhead: Many small flowers (florets) in solitary heads, 2–6 cm across at the end of stalks 8–25 cm long. Flowers mostly spring and early summer.


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Capeweed 2
Flower and Foliage.
Description: Annual rosette-forming herb with taproot; individual plants to 80 cm wide and 30 cm high. Leaves with upper surface hairless to hairy; basal leaves 5–25 cm long, 2–6 cm wide, on a stalk to 6 cm long; upper leaves, if present, stem-clasping.
Dispersal: Spread by movement of seed, by wind, water or movement in mud.


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Capeweed 3
Germinates autumn and winter, dying in summer. Widespread and common in temperate areas, and sometimes dominant in pasture. A weed of cultivation, pastures, lawns and disturbed areas. Plants are readily eaten by stock, but woolly seeds may cause impaction. Grazing is thought to taint milk and where Capeweed is the dominant feed nitrate poisoning of stock is possible.

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Caustic Weed 1
Caustic weed (Chamaesyce drummondii) is a prostrate multibranched annual weed that infests both gardens and lawn areas. The leaves are circular to oblong shaped and often have a purplish blotch in the centre.

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Caustic Weed 2
Caustic weed (Chamaesyce drummondii).   The flowers are inconspicuous and small and are often tinged pink. Flowers appear in summer to autumn.

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Common Sowthistle 1
Sonchus oleraceus:
Native of Europe, Asia & northern Africa.


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Common Sowthistle 2
Annual herb to 1.2–2 m high. Stems hollow. Leaves variable; basal leaves 5–25 cm long, lanceolate, base not stem clasping; stem leaves 6–35 cm long, lanceolate, usually lobed and with pointed stem clasping basal lobes. Flowerhead made up of heads in flat-topped panicles. Seeds brown.

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Common Sowthistle 3
Spread by movement of seed, by wind, water or movement in mud.

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Common Sowthistle 4
Widespread and common. A serious crop weed in some areas. Does not persist in pasture as it is readily grazed.

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Common Sowthistle 5
This thistle is widely naturalised around the world. Moderately salt tolerant.

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Crabgrass 1
Crabgrass (Eleusine indica).
Crabgrass grows flat along the ground with wide leaves on very tough and wiry stems, the leaves of young plants will be rolled over in half, opening as the leaf matures.


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Crabgrass 2
Crabgrass (Eleusine indica).
Masses of seeds are produced on several finger-like branches on top of the numerous stems produced by each Crabgrass plant.


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Crabgrass 3
Seed head of Crabgrass (Eleusine indica). Crabgrass is very difficult to eradicate with selective herbicides as the weed is very similar in nature to many desirable grass varieties we use as lawns.

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Creeping Oxalis
Creeping oxalis (Oxalis
corniculata) is a common lawn weed. It is highly branched with a lightly fleshy taproot, producing
slender stems that creep horizontally, rooting at intervals and with leaves along the stem. Small yellow flowers in clusters of one to six arise on stalks from the leaf axils. Creeping oxalis flowers in spring and summer.


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Dandelion 1
Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale)is an increasingly common weed in lawns in Western Australia.

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Dandelion 2
Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) with yellow flower.

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Dandelion 1
Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) is an increasingly common weed in lawns in Western Australia.

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Dandelion 2
Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale)
is a perennial, with a strong taproot and a rosette of toothed leaves. The stems are hollow, with only ever one flower head per stem.


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Dandelion 3
Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale)  The distinctive flowering heads, which can be produced throughout the year, are 3 cm across, contain
yellow florets and are followed by a sphere of plumed parachute seeds. The plant exudes milky latex if cut.


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Fleabane 1
Fleabanes (Conyza spp.) are upright annual herbs of various heights. They are typically grey-hairy plants. The stems branch below each pyramid of inflorescences resulting in a candelabra shape.

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Fleabane 2
Fleabane (Conyza spp.) an upright annual herb with flower buds.
Fleabane is a major weed of fallows.


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Fleabane 3
Fleabane (Conyza spp.)showing close-up of opening flower buds.
Fleabane is difficult to control with herbicides and is capable of developing herbicide resistance.


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Fleabane 4
Fleabane (Conyza spp.)showing fluffy flower.

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Four O'clock 1
Oxalis purpurea - Four O'clock - is a small low growing weed to 10cm high. The leaflets are almost circular, green to deep reddish green. The leaves form a rosette above which, the short stemmed flowers appear. Three colour forms occur, purple, mauve and white. All have a yellow throat. The shallow bulb is large - up to 2cm across, smooth, rounded and black/brown.

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Four O'clock 2
Oxalis purpurea is also thought to be a garden escapee. It prefers damp conditions and is widespread on heavier soils throughout the south-west of WA. Harder to kill than soursob, it has replaced this weed in agricultural areas and is a small low growing weed to 10cm high.

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Freesia 1
Freesia alba x leichtlinii.
Freesias are small perennial herbs with leaves arranged in a fan-like iris. They range in height from 100 to 300mm. The flowers may be single or double and scarcely to sweetly scented. Although species of Freesia were cultivated in Europe in the mid 18th century, selective hybridisation did not start until the late 19th century. They are now grown in large numbers for the florist trade. They are propagated from seed or bulb-like corms and may be grown in the garden or indoors in pots. After potted plants flower and die back they may sometimes be dumped with other garden refuse which aids their spread. Freesia is a serious weed of coastal heath, Wandoo and Tuart woodland, granite rocks, from Gingin to Israelite Bay.


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Freesia 2
Weed Type: Naturalised, Garden Escape, Environmental Weed.
Freesia is a serious weed of coastal heath, Wandoo and Tuart woodland, granite rocks, from Gingin to Israelite Bay.


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Fumaria capreolata L.
Alternative Names -- Climbing Fumitory, Whiteflower Fumitory.
Description -- Climbing or scrambling annual, herb, 0.1-1(-3) m high. Fl. white & red/brown, Aug to Nov. Common on wasteland, road verges.


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Fumaria capreolata L.
Alien to Western Australia.
Origin. Northern Africa, temperate Asia, Europe Macronesia, northern Africa, Temperate and western Asia, Europe. Similar exotic species. Fumaria muralis.


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Gazania 1
Introduced Species which escape from home gardens to invade native bushland.

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Gazania 2
Introduced Species which escape from home gardens to invade native bushland. Also come in a variety of colour combinations.

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Gazania 3
Introduced Species which escape from home gardens to invade native bushland.

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Gazania 4
Introduced Species which escape from home gardens to invade native bushland.

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Gazania 5
Introduced Species which escape from home gardens to invade native bushland.

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Geraldton Carnation Weed 1
Geraldton Carnation Weed (Euphorbia terracina L.) Origin: Mediterranean coast and islands, Canary Islands in the Atlantic, north of the Red Sea and the Black Sea to Georgia.

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Geraldton Carnation Weed 2
Dispersal: Spread by fruit opening explosively, birds, ants, movement of limestone soils and by machinery. Toxicity: Sap is poisonous and irritant.

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Lantana 1
Lantana (Lantana camara) occurs naturally in Mexico, the Caribbean and tropical and subtropical Central and South America. It is considered a weed in nearly 50 countries.

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Lantana 2
Lantana is a Weed of National
Significance. It is regarded as one of the worst weeds in Australia because of its invasiveness, potential for spread, and economic and environmental impacts.
Lantana forms dense, impenetrable
thickets that take over native bushland and pastures. It competes for resources with, and reduces the productivity of, pastures and forestry plantations. It adds fuel to fires, and is toxic to stock.


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Narrow-Leaf Cotton Bush 1
Gomphocarpus fruticosus.
Alternative Name: Swan Plant.
Origin: Native of Africa, Arabia and Mediterranean.


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Narrow-Leaf Cotton Bush 2
Distinguishing features: Distinguished by shrub habit; milky latex; lanceolate opposite leaves; flowers white to cream; fruit a thin walled inflated ovoid pod, 4–7 cm long, 1.5–3 cm wide, ending in a tapering point.
Dispersal: Spreads by seeds and lateral roots.


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Narrow-Leaf Cotton Bush 3
Description: Erect perennial shrub to 2 m high. Stems densely covered with apressed short weak soft hairs when young, becoming hairless with age. Leaves 4–12.5 cm long, 0.5–1.5 cm wide, upper and lower surfaces with scattered hairs; on leaf stalk to 1 cm long. Fruit a green pod initially, turning brown with age, covered with soft spines to 1 cm long, splitting to release seeds; pod with inner wall separated from outer wall by an air space and seeds within inner chamber; pod stalk S-shaped. Seeds numerous, ovoid, flat, about 0.6 cm long and ending in a tuft of white silky hairs about 3 cm long.

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Onion Grass 1
Onion Grass (Romulea rosea) is a herbaceous perennial in the family Iridaceae. It is endemic to the western Cape Province in South Africa. Common names include Guildford Grass, Onion Grass and Rosy Sandcrocus.

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Onion Grass 2
Onion grass can significantly reduce the productivity of crops, pastures and animal systems, making it a costly agricultural weed. Onion grass has no nutritional benefit to animals, remaining undigested in the gut. If large quantities are consumed, fibre balls may form and obstruct the bowel, causing death. In crops and pastures, onion grass often grows ahead of desirable species, utilising valuable moisture and nutrients and restricting production.

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Onion Grass 3
Romulea rosea
Onion Grass often invades domestic lawns.


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Onion Grass 4
Romulea rosea
Whole plant showing leaves, flower and underground bulb.


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Onion Weed 1
Onion Weed (Nothoscordum inodorum) is a proclaimed noxious weed for most of NSW and WA, and for all of Tas, SA and Vic. Onion weed is a perennial with thin green strappy leaves growing from a mainly white bulb which gives off an onion smell when crushed. Flowers grow at the top of a long stalk and are mainly white.

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Onion Weed 2
Seeds form in summer and autumn and are spread mostly by wind blowing the seeds into new areas. Onion weed also develops small bulblets attached to the parent bulb. These sprout after the main parent bulb has died from herbicide such as Zero Glyphosate Weedspray or from breaking off when the weed is being pulled up. Therefore repeat applications onto the weed will probably be required.

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Prickly Pear 1
Prickly Pear (Opuntia stricta)
Family: Cactaceae.
Origin: Native to the Caribbean region.


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Prickly Pear 2
Flowers/Seedhead: Flowers: yellow/red mostly on the margins of the fleshy segments. Flowers late spring to summer.

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Prickly Pear  3
Dispersal: Spread by seed or vegetatively by segments that root where they contact the ground.

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Prickly Pear 4
Fruit are egg-shaped with a depressed top, purple when ripe and edible. Seeds pale brown, to 5 mm long.

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Ruby Dock 1
Acetosa vesicaria.
Origin: Native of northern Africa and east to India (Punjab).
Dispersal: Spread by seed in fruit that are wind- and water-dispersed.


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Ruby Dock 2
Drought resistant plant distributed through the interior of Australia. Fruits showy. It generally invades disturbed land and is common along watercourses.

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Ruby Dock 3
In arid areas it can provide some grazing for stock but contains oxalates and nitrates which may cause poisoning.

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Small-flowered Mallow
Malva parviflora: Native of southern Europe, central to western Asia and northern Africa. Erect or spreading annual herb to 1 m high. Fruit breaks into 8–12 seed-like fruit segments (mericarps), 1.5–2.5 mm long, brown when ripe, hairless or shortly hairy on outer surface. Spread by seed. It is a major crop weed in parts of Queensland and NSW. Plants are also found in poor pastures, neglected land and gardens. If it is eaten by stock in large quantities it may produce 'staggers', especially in lambs. Malva parviflora is widely naturalised in temperate to subtropical areas around the world.

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Soursob 1
Soursob (Oxalis pes-caprae L.)
Origin: South Africa.


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Soursob 2
Alternative Names. Sour Grass.

General Biology: Growth form. Geophyte. Life form. Annually renewed bulb. Reproduction. Bulbils.
Dispersal: Soil, birds. Fire response. Generally survives fire.


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Soursob 3
Suggested method of management and control: Spot spray metsulfuron methyl 0.2 g/15 L + Pulse®, or 1% glyphosate. Apply at bulb exhaustion, generally just on flowering. Exercise care if manually removing as physical removal can result in spread of bulbils. Read the manufacturers' labels and material safety data sheets before using herbicides.

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Soursob 4
Nodding unopened flowers of Soursob (Oxalis pes-caprae L.).

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Watsonia species 1
Origin: Native to South Africa.
Weed Type(s): Naturalised, Environmental Weed, Garden Escape.


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Watsonia species 2
Watsonia has been cultivated in Australia for more than 150 years being included in nursery catalogues in Victoria in the 1850s. Six species of Watsonia have been recorded as naturalised in conservation reserves and state forests in Western Australia including Kings Park. They are all believed to be garden escapes. Because they are of garden origin it is often difficult to determine the exact species.

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Watsonia species 3
Watsonia aletroides was first recorded as naturalised in Western Australia in 1981 and in Victoria in 1989. Watsonia bulbillifera is a serious weed in the wetter south coast and south-west of Western Australia where it colonises roadsides. Watsonia marginata, which has open pale lilac flowers, occurs around old settlements from the Darling Range to Albany.

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Watsonia species 4
Watsonia is a sun-loving herbaceous perennial which holds its flowers above the foliage. It was introduced as an ornamental and propagated for its hardiness and bright flowers. Up to three corms are produced alongside the main corm each year and cormlets are produced in the axils of the leaves. The corms can remain dormant for many years when dry. Watsonia also grows from seed.

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Wild Raddish 1
Wild Raddish (Raphanus raphanistrum) originated in Europe and now in southern Australia it is one of the most widespread and troublesome weeds of cereal and grain legume crops. It occurs in pastures and is a common weed of roadsides and wastelands.

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Wild Raddish 2
The seedling develops into a flat rosette, the leaves of which do not have a distinct stalk. Erect branches covered with prickly hairs arise from near the base as the plant matures. The rosette of lobed leaves does not persist. Lower stem leaves are covered with prickly hairs and deeply lobed, with a rounded terminal lobe. When crushed these leaves have a strong turnip-like odour.

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Wild Raddish 3
Upper stem leaves become narrower, shorter and often undivided. Flowers are in clusters on the ends of stem branches. They have four petals which alternate with four sepals. The petals may vary in colour; yellow or white petals are more common than purple, pink or brown. Petals often have light or dark distinct veins.

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Weed 003a

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Weed 003b

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Weed 003c

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Weed 003d
The Seed.  These corkscrew-like seeds get into the fur and wool of animals, devaluing the fleece and causing skin irritations.

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Weed 004a

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Weed 006a
Appears to be a species of Senecio, similar to the Fireweed of New South Wales (Senecio madagascariensis).

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Weed 006b
Appears to be a species of Senecio, similar to the Fireweed of New South Wales (Senecio madagascariensis).

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Weed 006c
Appears to be a species of Senecio, similar to the Fireweed of New South Wales (Senecio madagascariensis).

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Weed 010a

 
   
 
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