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4nec2 Antenna Sims by holl_ands
Antenna Simulation analyzes using the (FREE) 4nec2 program, a control and presentation "shell"
that can use either NEC2 (FREE) or NEC4 (NOT FREE) Method-Of-Moments Calculation Engines:
http://www.qsl.net/4nec2/

I have tried to determine the "optimum" dimensions for a large number of antennas in the fol. Bands:
Old & New (Up thru Ch51) UHF, Hi-VHF (Ch7-13), some Lo-VHF (esp. Ch6) and a few for the FM Band.

Nearly ANY Antenna Design can be Rescaled to dimensions appropriate for another Band (incl. Wi-Fi).
To Rescale a New UHF Band Antenna (if peak on CH51) to center of 2.400-2.485 GHz Wi-Fi Band,
shrink ALL Dimensions (incl. wire size) by the Rescale Factor = 698/2442.5 = 0.2858.  Invert
ratio to enlarge a design for a lower frequency Band.  Reoptimize, if necessary, esp. if change
to a "standard" sized element diameter.

Many other antennas posted on fol. website (esp Area 51, et. al.) have also been analyzed to
determine results and facilitate embedding into posts:
http://www.digitalhome.ca/forum/forumdisplay.php?f=186

If you have comments, use an appropriate thread (e.g. Area 51, 4nec2, perhaps another) or PM.
I DO NOT and CAN NOT monitor each and every webpage on THIS website for comments.

Since I have tried to AVOID unnecessary repetition of the fine work of other investigators, more info
on Multi-Bay, Grey-Hoverman and FM DIY antennas...and many commercial designs is found here:

http://m4antenna.eastmasonvilleweather.com/index.html  [Multi-Bay Bowtie Antennas]
https://sites.google.com/site/maycreates/ota-setup/mclapp-4  [Multi-Bay Bowtie Antennas]
http://www.digitalhome.ca/forum/showthread.php?t=100137  [Multi-Bay Bowtie Antennas]
http://www.digitalhome.ca/forum/186-antenna-research-development/190146-optimized-4nec2-models-bowties-5.html#post2145865  [FF4 Multi-Bay by schoolbus]
http://www.digitalhome.ca/forum/186-antenna-research-development/238225-horizontally-ganged-ff4s.html#post2510106  [FF4 Multi-Bay by Frank Zappa]
http://www.avsforum.com/forum/25-hdtv-technical/1839185-what-hdtv-antenna-will-work-me-southern-nh.html#post30650377  [FF4 Multi-Bay by nhcordcut]

FWIW, here are some Videos of the mclapp M4 Antenna, which is similar to FF4, except for the Dimensions:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M8jsDxNgHn4
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BcUSW2l6MSI
And here is an example of how NOT to construct a 4-Bay. Do NOT screw Bowties directly into Wood
(which retains moisture)...use insulators. Do NOT deviate from OPTIMIZED Dimensions, such as
Zero or minimal separation between Feedlines where they Cross....or locating the Crosses
EQUALLY, rather than OFFSET between Bowties. Do NOT use Chicken Wire Reflector...HORIZONTAL
Wires are what do the work & Vertical Wires are of minimal consequence...and I have
NO CLUE what Diagonal Wires in Chicken Wire do....and NO, I'm not going to model it.

I have avoided replicating G-H results found elsewhere. Much more info can be found here:
http://www.digitalhome.ca/ota/superantenna  [Grey-Hoverman]
http://www.jedsoft.org/fun/antennas/dtv/gh.html  [Grey-Hoverman]
http://clients.teksavvy.com/~nickm/index.html    [Optimized Grey-Hoverman & Stealthawk]
http://www.digitalhome.ca/forum/showthread.php?t=81982  [Grey-Hoverman]
http://www.digitalhome.ca/forum/showthread.php?t=121956  [Hi-VHF & UHF Grey-Hoverman]

Some G-H DIY websites:
http://www.digitalhome.ca/forum/showthread.php?t=95898 [300-ohm's DIY G-H thread]
https://sites.google.com/site/maycreates/ota-setup/my-sbgh [Mayhem Creation's DIY G-H]
http://www.diytvantennas.com [Chris Dahl's DIY G-H]
http://www.instructables.com/id/Gray-Hoverman-TV-Antenna-Final-Assembly/?ALLSTEPS [unclesam's DIY G-H]
http://www.casano.com/projects/hoverman/index.html [Wm F Dudley Jr's DIY G-H]
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YaYDtOqpTOI [Even kidz can do it.....]
nikiml's Hi-VHF/UHF GH0 using Foil Tape on Cardboard:
http://techorator.blogspot.com/2013/04/homemade-20-super-antenna-out-of-paper.html

http://www.hdtvprimer.com/antennas/comparing.html  [Commercial Antennas]
http://www.hdtvprimer.com/ANTENNAS/TemporaryPage.html [Commercial Antenna Updates & Mods]
http://www.hdtvprimer.com/SIMS  [EZNEC files for Commercial Antennas]
NOTE: 4nec2 can import EZNEC files.

http://www.ham-radio.com/k6sti/  [Mostly FM with a few TV Antennas]

http://www.antennahacks.com/AntennaHacks.htm  [On-Air Tests of various TV antennahacks, incl. RF Combiner Loss.]

=======================================================================
NOTE: Since imageevent doesn't support *.txt file storage, the 4nec2 *.pdf or MS-OFFICE *.doc formatted files must first
be OPENED.  Press "CTRL-A" to Select ALL and then copy/paste to MS NOTEBOOK (Text Editor) and SAVE as a *.nec (text) file.

1 - 29 of 29 Total.
Files by holl_ands
1. Files by holl_ands  (February 2, 2009)
Downloadable Files re On-The-Air Reception - by holl_ands
Includes DTV Antenna Specs (and measured Performance), measured Balun Loss, measured RF Splitter Loss & RG-6 Cable Loss Specs.
Also includes ATSC/NTSC Tuner Specs and Preamp Specs, plus a DTV Signal Overload Calculator and a Third Order Intermod Calculator.
6 Albums
Shared Folder
Smart Antenna Tests & Interior Photos
2. Smart Antenna Tests & Interior Photos  (June 29, 2009)
DX Antennas DTA5000 and RCA ANT2000 Smart Antenna Tests and Interior Photos.

On-Air test compares Smart Antennas to Hi-VHF Folded Dipole and Winegard YA-1713 10-Element Hi-VHF Yagi.
4 Albums
Shared Folder
Omni & Quasi-Omni Directional Antennas
3. Omni & Quasi-Omni Directional Antennas  (17 Dec 2011)
Omni-Directional Antennas analyzed using 4nec2, including a Hi-VHF Monopole Whip
(see last album) and the following for FM Band:

FM WORST-to-Best Gain (dBi, all angles & freqs): HORIZONTAL     VERTICAL         TOTAL         SWR (Impedance)

a) FM Vertical Folded Dipole (Vert. Pol.):               minimal         +1.7 to +2.6    +1.7 to +2.6    1-2.0 (300-ohms)
x) FM Biconical (Vert. Pol.):                                 minimal         +1.7 to +1.8    +1.7 to +1.8    2-3 (75-ohms)
b) FM Monopole Whip (Vert. Pol.):                       minimal         +1.5 to +1.6    +1.5to +1.6     3-4.5 (75-ohms)
y) FM Discone (Vert. Pol.):                                  minimal         +1.4 to +1.4    +1.4 to +1.4    2-3 (75-ohms)

z) FM Flat-Swept SBGH (Horiz. Pol.):                 +4.5 to +7.5      minimal        +4.5 to +7.5      2.3 (300-ohms)
c) FM Double-Hoop (Horiz. Pol.):                        -2.1 to +1.3      minimal        -2.1 to +1.3       6-11 (300-ohms)
d) FM Goalkeeper Quad-Trapezoid (H-Pol)            -99 to +3.1      minimal         -99 to +3.1       2.7 (300-ohms)
e) FM Turnstile (Horiz. Pol.):                               -33 to +1.4      minimal        -13 to +1.4       1.5-3.0 (300-ohms)

f) FM Turnstile Rotated (Horiz. + Vert. Pol.):        -33 to +0.1     -1.6 to +0.7   -1.6 to +2.3      3.5-1.5 (300-ohms)
g) FM Double-Hoop + Vertical-Dipole Outside:       -12 to +1.0    -13 to +1.9     -1.9 to +2.1      1-5 (75-ohms)
h) FM Double-Hoop + Vertical-FD Outside:           -3.9 to +1.2     -22 to -1.4     -2.3 to +1.8     6.4-6.8 (300-ohms)
i) FM Double-Hoop + Vertical-Dipole In Center:   -5.9 to +0.9    -9.4 to +1.5    -1.2 to +2.4      2.6-6 (300-ohms)
j) FM Double-Hoop + Vertical-FD In Center:         -5.2 to +0.8     -10 to +1.2    -1.8 to +2.3      2.2-7.2 (300-ohms)

k) FM Double-Hoop with Vertical Whip:                   -3.7 to +1.2     -53 to -4.6    -3.2 to +1.9     5.1-7.1 (300-ohms)
l) FM ESS-Curve (similar to Fracarro ANT1200A):   -4.4 to -1.4     -34 to +0.1    -4.4 to +2.5    1.3-2.7 (300-ohms)
m) FM ESS-Curve (similar to Dipol A0222+A0223):  -5.1 to -1.9     -36 to +0.4    -5.1 to +2.4    1.3-2.5 (300-ohms)

n) FM ZigZag (similar to Triax FM Zigma):             -39 to -1.7    -1.5 to -0.7     -1.5 to +2.4     1.7-3.7 (300-ohms)
o) FM ZigZag (Cir. Pol. Forward & Back):               -37 to -1.1     -2.5 to -0.4    -2.5 to +2.3     1.7-3.7 (300-ohms)
p) FM Folded Dipole Pair (Cir. Pol. Fwd & Back):     -31 to +1.7    -6.7 to +1.1    -6.6 to +2.3    1.3-1.7 (300-ohms)

First group (a, x, b, y) are Omni ONLY for Vertical Polarization.  Whip has a flatter Gain curve but higher SWR.
  Vertical Folded Dipole has excellent SWR with only a small Gain variance across all angles and frequencies.

Second group (z, c-e) are Omni ONLY for Horizontal Polarization.
Flat-Swept SBGH has Highest Performance.  Double-Hoop has flat Gain curve but high SWR.
 Goalkeeper and Turnstile Azimuthal Patterns are Bi-Directional "Quasi-Omni", however Turnstile's Azimuthal
 Pattern is along a Diagonal, with deep nulls along the opposite Diagonal.

Third group (f-j) respond to both Vertical and Horizontal Polarization, however there is moderate Gain Loss
  on some angles and frequencies.  All exhibit high SWR.

Fourth group (k-m) respond to both Vertical and Horizontal Polarization, however there is severe Vertical Gain
  Loss on some angles and frequencies.  ESS-Curve (similar to Fracarro ANT1200A) is slightly better than Dipol.

Fifth group (n-p) respond to both Vertical and Horizontal Polarization, however there is severe Horizontal Gain
  Loss on some angles and frequencies.  FM ZigZag (similar to Triax FM Zigma) is slightly better.
  For Circular Polarization Forward & Rear, Folded Dipole Pair is best choice.
42 Albums
Shared Folder
Bowties, Dipoles, Batwings & Rhombics
4. Bowties, Dipoles, Batwings & Rhombics  (March 8, 2010)
Bowties, Dipoles, Batwings & Rhombics (Oh My!!!) analyzed using 4nec2.

"VEE" shaped Rabbit Ears are analyzed in the Circular Polarization Folder.

EDIT (17 Dec 2011): Monopoles moved to NEW Omni-Directional Antenna Folder.
13 Albums
Shared Folder
Slot Antennas
5. Slot Antennas  (Aug 29, 2015)
Slot Antennas Antennas Analyzed using 4nec2.
3 Albums
Shared Folder
Loop Antennas incl Folded Dipole
6. Loop Antennas incl Folded Dipole  (July 15, 2009)
Folded Dipoles, Tri-Folded Dipoles, Square Loops (incl. HenTenna), Circular Loops, Figure-8, Hourglass, Quad-Trapezoid,
Shorted-Bowtie-Loops (SBL), Bowtie-In-Loops (BIL) and Dreamcatcher, et. al. analyzed using 4nec2
42 Albums
Shared Folder
Multi-Bay Hourglass-Loops
7. Multi-Bay Hourglass-Loops  (19 Nov 2014)
Multi-Bay Hourglass-Loops and Quad-Trapezoid Antennas analyzed using 4nec2.
3 Albums
Shared Folder
Multi-Bay Bowtie Antennas
8. Multi-Bay Bowtie Antennas  (August 17, 2009)
2-Bay, 3-Bay, 4-Bay, 6-Bay and 8-Bay Bowtie Antennas (with and without Reflector) analyzed using 4nec2.
21 Albums
Shared Folder
Multi-Bay Dipole Antennas
9. Multi-Bay Dipole Antennas  (4 Jun2012)
Multi-Bay Dipole Antennas analyzed using 4nec2.

4-Bay and 8-Bay Dipole Antennas (with and without Reflector) analyzed using 4nec2.
9 Albums
Shared Folder
Colinear Dipole Arrays
10. Colinear Dipole Arrays  (3 Mar 2012)
Colinear Dipole Arrays analyzed using 4nec2, including antique Finco 400 types.
2 Albums
Shared Folder
Bi-Quad Antennas
11. Bi-Quad Antennas  (19 Aug 2011)
Bi-Quad Antennas, including Double Bi-Quad and Bi-Quad Yagis analyzed using 4nec2.

Note that the outer tips of a Bi-Quad connect to each other.
Chireix antennas are similar, but with a GAP at the tips.

Also note that the Feedpoint Gap is between the two Zig-Zag Elements,
running Horizontal for Horizontally Polarized Antennas as shown here.
Hence the Overall Antenna is taller than it is wide, unlike an Enclosed Bowtie.
10 Albums
Shared Folder
Multi-Diamond Antennas
12. Multi-Diamond Antennas  (30 Apr 2013)
Multiple Diamond Analyzed using 4nec2.  Similar to Bi-Quad, except with additional Diamond shaped sections.
4 Albums
Shared Folder
Chireix, StealthHawk & V-Hawk Zig-Zags
13. Chireix, StealthHawk & V-Hawk Zig-Zags  (August 17, 2009)
Chireix Zig-Zag Antenna as well as StealthHawk & V-Hawk derivatives analyzed using 4nec2.  

Chireix Antenna is a pair of Zig-Zag shaped wires parallel to each other, which are only interconnected via a 4:1 Balun.
9 Albums
Shared Folder
Gray-Hoverman Antennas
14. Gray-Hoverman Antennas  (January 30, 2009)
Original Hoverman variations, SBGH (Single Bay Gray-Hoverman) and DBGH (Double Bay Gray-Hoverman)
analyzed for Hi-VHF and UHF performance using 4nec2.

I have avoided replicating G-H results found elsewhere. Much more info can be found here:
http://www.digitalhome.ca/ota/superantenna  [Grey-Hoverman]
http://www.jedsoft.org/fun/antennas/dtv/gh.html  [Grey-Hoverman]
http://clients.teksavvy.com/~nickm/index.html    [nikiml's Optimized Grey-Hoverman & Stealthawk]
http://www.digitalhome.ca/forum/showthread.php?t=81982  [Grey-Hoverman]
http://www.digitalhome.ca/forum/showthread.php?t=121956  [Hi-VHF & UHF Grey-Hoverman]

Some DIY websites:
http://www.digitalhome.ca/forum/showthread.php?t=95898 [300-ohm's DIY G-H thread]
http://mysite.verizon.net/res11d41p/id2.html  [UHF SBGH-6 + Hi-VHF NARODS]
https://sites.google.com/site/maycreates/ota-setup/my-sbgh [Mayhem Creation's DIY G-H]
http://www.diytvantennas.com [Chris Dahl's DIY G-H]
http://www.instructables.com/id/Gray-Hoverman-TV-Antenna-Final-Assembly/?ALLSTEPS [unclesam's DIY G-H]
http://community.9wsyr.com/blogs/plugged_in_the_dtv_switch/archive/2008/05/27/3046816.aspx [DBGH by JHEngineering for WSYR]
http://www.casano.com/projects/hoverman/index.html [Wm F Dudley Jr's DIY Stacked DBGH]
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YaYDtOqpTOI [Even kidz can do it.....]
http://techorator.blogspot.com/2013/04/homemade-20-super-antenna-out-of-paper.html  [nikiml's Hi-VHF/UHF GH0 using Foil Tape on Cardboard]
15 Albums
Shared Folder
Yagi Antennas
15. Yagi Antennas  (June 19, 2009)
Hi-VHF 4, 5, 8, 9, 12, 13, 16, 18, 20 and 22-Element Yagi Antennas performance analyzed using 4nec2.

UHF 5, 6, 7, 8, 12, 13, 15, 16, 18, 23-Element and 91XG (23-Element + Corner Reflector) Yagi Antennas
performance analyzed using 4nec2.

Nearly ANY Antenna Design can be Rescaled to dimensions appropriate for another Band (incl. Wi-Fi).
To Rescale a New UHF Band Antenna (if peak on CH51) to center of 2.400-2.485 GHz Wi-Fi Band,
shrink ALL Dimensions (incl. wire size) by the Rescale Factor = 698/2442.5 = 0.2858.  Invert
ratio to enlarge a design for a lower frequency Band.  Reoptimize, if necessary, esp. if change
to a "standard" sized element diameter.

BOOM CORRECTIONS: Most NEC Yagi models intentionally leave out the Metallic Boom
since it requires many more segments that greatly slow down the simulation
[and from what I've attempted, provide indeterminate results..maybe I need NEC4 Engine].

To compensate for the missing Boom, 4nec2 optimized dimensions for Element Length
must be INCREASED by the amount of the BOOM CORRECTON when cutting actual Metal.
Note that the amount of Boom Correction varies, depending on whether Insulated
or Bonded to the Boom and derated (reduced) for being on TOP and if Isolated ABOVE or
BELOW the Boom, which explains why there is usually NO BC for Active Elements.

Boom Corrections are NOT needed if using a non-metallic boom (e.g. wood or fiberglass).

UHF 13-El FD-Yagi (2RR) webpage contains Spread Sheet Boom Correction Calculation
Examples, based on a variety of references sources (note disagreements).
For a 1-in Boom (Circular or Square), the extra Passive Element Half-Length is 0.25-in or LESS,
and for a 1/2-in Boom, the Boom Correction is only 0.1-in or LESS.  Element Size did not matter.

Hi-VHF YA-1713 10-El Log-Yagi webpage contains Boom Correction Calculator Spread Sheet
example that can be used for other antennas.  Includes References and explanations:
http://photos.imageevent.com/holl_ands/logyagi/wgya1713/ya1713nocorr/W-G%20YA-1713%20-%20Yagi%20Boom%20Corr%20Calc%20Summary%20-%2031Dec2008.xls
63 Albums
Shared Folder
Bi-Directional Yagis
16. Bi-Directional Yagis  (4 Jul 2016)
BI-DIRECTIONAL YAGIS analyzed using 4nec2.
1 Albums
Shared Folder
Log-Yagi & Dual-Driven Antennas
17. Log-Yagi & Dual-Driven Antennas  (25Jan2011)
Log-Yagi and Dual-Driven Antennas analyzed using 4nec2:

a) FM Band, Antennacraft FM-6, 6-Element Log-Yagi.

b) Wade-Delhi C-101-5 10-element Ch3-5 Log-Yagi, 148-inch Boom.

c) Winegard YA-1713, 10-element Hi-VHF Log-Yagi, 98-inch Boom.

d) Antennacraft Y10-7-13, 10-element Hi-VHF Dual-Driven Yagi, 120-inch Boom.
6 Albums
Shared Folder
LPDA + ZigZagLPA Antennas
18. LPDA + ZigZagLPA Antennas  (December 23, 2008)
LPDA (Log Periodic Dipole Array) and Zig-Zag LPA (Log Periodic Array) Antenna performance analyzed using 4nec2.
7 Albums
Shared Folder
Parabolic Antennas
19. Parabolic Antennas  (17 Nov 2012)
Parabolic Antennas analyzed using 4nec2 (excluding Circular Polarized).
8 Albums
Shared Folder
Quasi-Parabolic Antennas
20. Quasi-Parabolic Antennas  (21 Mar 2013)
UHF Quasi-Periodic (KISS) with Flat Panels approximating a Parabolic Reflector +  Various Feed Antennas analyzed using 4nec2.
3 Albums
Shared Folder
Circular Polarized incl. Rabbit-Ears
21. Circular Polarized incl. Rabbit-Ears  (9 Feb 2001)
Circular Polarized Antennas analyzed using 4nec2.

Circularly Polarized signals are broadcast with a 90-deg phase shift between the Horizontal and Vertical
Polarization components.  When Right Hand Circular Polarized signals are transmitted, a RHCP Antenna SHOULD
suppress LHCP (multipath) signals, since rotation changes upon reflection from buildings, bridges & terrain:
http://www.rabbitears.info/oddsandends.php?request=polarization&type=C

Some stations chose to transmit Elliptically Polarized signals, with reduced power in either Horizontal
or (more likely) Vertical component....probably to save money, esp. reducing monthly power bill:
http://www.rabbitears.info/oddsandends.php?request=polarization&type=E

a) Simple Rabbit Ears in "VEE" shape.

b) Goalkeeper Quad-Trapezoid+Spurs

c) Crossed Dipoles.

d) Offset Crossed Dipoles

e) Crossed Yagis

f) Offset Crossed Yagis

g) Helical (Axial-Mode).

h) Circularly Polarized 5-Blade Fan.

FM Cycloid Dipole is also Circular Polarized, providing good suppression of LHCP, but the SWR is very Excessive:
http://imageevent.com/holl_ands/omni/fmcycloiddipole
8 Albums
Shared Folder
Curtain Quad Antennas
22. Curtain Quad Antennas  (August 5, 2009)
Curtain Quad Antenna Arrays analyzed using 4nec2.
5 Albums
Shared Folder
Stacked Antennas
23. Stacked Antennas  (March 4, 2010)
Stacked Antennas analyzed using 4nec2 to determine:

1. Minimum tolerable separation for some "typical" vertically stacked UHF and Hi-VHF antennas.

2. Optimum stacking distance for matched antennas: http://www.grantronics.com.au/docs/StkYagis.pdf
Also see Cebik's article (FREE registration required): http://www.cebik.com/content/a10/yagi/stacksup.html
5 Albums
Shared Folder
Not For TV - Too Narrowband
24. Not For TV - Too Narrowband  (July 26, 2009)
Misc Antennas analyzed using 4nec2 that are NOT suitable for TV bands.

Includes Yet Another UTube Defect, Bruce Arrays, Sturba Curtains and Joe Carr's Six-Shooter Array.
9 Albums
Shared Folder
Amateur Radio Antennas
25. Amateur Radio Antennas  (October 8, 2015)
A few noteworthy Amateur Radio Antennas analyzed as they came up in Forum conversations.....
4 Albums
Shared Folder
CES2009
26. CES2009  (9-10 Jan2009)
Highlights of Consumer Electronics Show 2009 in Las Vegas.
7215 Visits
33 Images
Shared Album
CES 2008 (incl. earlier CES & NAB)
27. CES 2008 (incl. earlier CES & NAB)  (January 9-11, 2008)
CES2005, CES2006, NAB2006, CES2007 and CES2008 highlights.
10245 Visits
74 Images
Shared Album
2007 Jul 12 to Aug 3 - BC, WA and OR
28. 2007 Jul 12 to Aug 3 - BC, WA and OR  (Jul 23 to Aug 3, 2007)
Spruce Goose.  Victoria, Squamish/Whistler and Vancouver, BC.  Glass Art Museum at Tacoma, WA.
Mt Olympia, Mt Rainier, Mt Saint Helens, Mt Hood, Crater Lake, Mt Shasta

Click on Thumbnails to see 1024x768 Images.  Double-Click on Images to see HI-REZ.
As usual, Click on "X" to Exit Windows.
9982 Visits
91 Images
Shared Album
Partial Solar Eclipse from San Diego, CA
29. Partial Solar Eclipse from San Diego, CA  (20 Mar 2012)
Partial Solar Eclipse from Sycamore Canyon Reserve Park, San Diego, CA (just south of Scripps-Poway Parkway on SR67).
Next Event: Transit of Venus across the face of the sun.
10472 Visits
15 Images
Shared Album