The default recommendation to treat contaminated water is to boil it. However, as microbiologists know from milk pasteurization (161°F, 71°C, for only 15 seconds) boiling is heat far in excess of what is needed. Water will be pasteurized when heated to 149°F (65°C). A reusable, wax-based Water Pasteurization Indicator (WAPI) can verify that water has been pasteurized. Microbiology tests before and after heating verify the disease microbes have been killed.
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