Water testing conducted with Friends of the Old (FOTO) staff
FOTO office located in Katito, Lower Nyakach, Western Kenya
With FOTO staff and Board members, July, 2011
Lower Nyakach locations, population ~70,000, ~5,000 grandparents take care of orphaned grandchildren.
FOTO staff experienced in water testing using Colilert and Petrifilms
Colilert and Petrfilm tests to use
L to R: Petrifilm, Whirl Pak, pipette, Colilert tube, UV light for Colilert
Mary Beth Metcalf and Julie Oliver label tubes and Petrifilms for testing
Tubes and Petrifilms for initial sample of 11 water sources
11 drinking water sources collected by FOTO staff
Ready to start experiment
Each FOTO staff member assigned to one water source
Initial sample, 1 Colilert tube, triplicate Petrifilms
Inoculating Colilert tube, 0 hour
Each water source added to plastic bottle for Solar Disinfection (SODIS) treatment.
Bob Metcalf with SODIS bottles. Full sunshine, <1° from equator!
5 water sources also added to dark, covered pots, placed in Cookit solar cooker to pasteurize water.
Water Pasteurization Indicator (WAPI) added to solar heated water.
Water Pasteurization Indicator (WAPI). When water reaches 65°C (149°F), wax melts and falls to the bottom. Water is pasteurized.
After 3 hours of full sunshine, SODIS bottle sampled.
SODIS samples at 3 hours, 1 Colilert tube, duplicate Petrifilms
3 hour sampling of water heated in Cookit, 1 Colilert tube, duplicate Petrifilms
WAPI wax melted with Nyalunya River water, it's pasteurized, safe to drink.
WAPI wax melted with E. Nyakach pond water and other heated water sources.
3 more hours of equatorial sunshine for SODIS bottles
Collecting SODIS bottles for testing after 6 hours of sunshine
SODIS tests at 6 hours, 1 Colilert tube and duplicate Petrifilms.
Inside controls also tested 6 hours, 1 Colilert tube, duplicate Petrifilms
WaterGuard, Aquaguard, 1.2% sodium hypochlorite
WaterGuard will be added to 11 SODIS bottles
3 drops per liter WaterGuard added to SODIS bottles
Testing free chlorine in SODIS bottles with SenSafe strips
SenSafe tests for free chlorine
SenSafe strips before (top) and after thiosulfate added after 15 min.
Testing chlorine treated samples, 1 Colilert tube, duplicate Petrifilms
Colilert tubes to incubate on body overnight to obtain results
Recording results of water tests
60 Colilert tubes, 120 Petrifilms
E. coli colonies are blue with gas. Other colonies from environmental bacteria.
Clear = no coliform bacteria. Yellow (ONPG+) = coliform bacteria present, possibly E. coli
Shine a long-wavelenth UV light on tubes. Blue fluorescence = MUG (+), E. coli is present (right tube). MUG (-), E. coli not present.
Colilert and Petrifilm tests correlate with risk of disease, WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, 2nd Edition.
I. Awach River
I. Awach River results. Heat (Cookit) and chlorine disinfect, SODIS doesn't.
E. Omondo River
E. Omondo River results. Chlorine disinfects, SODIS doesn't.
Omondo River results SODIS vs chlorine
C. Nyalunya River
C. Nyalunya River results. Heat and chlorine disinfect. SODIS doesn't
Nyalunya River results, SODIS vs heat
K. Asawo River
K. Asawo River results. SODIS, heat and chlorine = low disease risk.
F. Turbid pond water
All F Petrifilms
F. Rang'ul Pond water results. Heat and chlorine disinfect, SODIS doesn't
Rang'ul Pond Results SODIS vs heat
D. Tap Water, Pap Onditi
D. Tap water results. SODIS and chlorine = low disease risk
G. North Nyakach tank
North Nyakach tank results. Low disease risk initially.
H. East Nyakach turbid pond water
East Nyakach pond water results. Intermediate risk to start, low risk with SODIS, chlorine
J. Very turbid Pond Water, Central
No residual chlorine in turbid Central pond water
Central Pond Water results. Heat disinfects, SODIS and chlorine don't
B. West Kabodho pond water
B. West Kabodho pond water low risk initially
A. Borehole, Central
Central Borehole results. SODIS, heat and chlorine = low disease risk
Petrifilm results - boreholes contaminated. Started chlorine distribution
Petrifilm results led to distribution of free chlorine to all families, starting in 2012
Chlorine distribution through village elders
Village elder with chlorine to distribute in his village
Recipients of chlorine distribution
In 2014 FOTO started providing all 42 schools with chlorine
primary school supply of chlorine
Safe storage container (left), chlorine on table. "No more diarrhea."
Taking water testing to communities
FOTO staff lead 24 water/sanitation sessions each month
Teaching at primary school
Testing school's water sources
Evidence-based microbiology that people understand
The blue dot means fecal bacteria are in our water source
Cholera outbreak in region
Lower Nyakach is a cholera free oasis within the region
FOTO shirts promote eliminating waterborne diseases
FOTO 2017 Calendar promotes The Goal is Zero
Participating in IWA Development Congress
FOTO project director Dinah Chienjo, Bob, Faustine Odaba
IWHA booth introducing unique water testing methods
Delegates shown how to pipette and inoculate tests
Bob and Dinah's talk - The Goal is Zero!
Bob introduces water testing methods
Dinah describes FOTO project to eliminate waterborne diseases
IWHA present at IWA's 4th Devlopment Congress
IWHA booth at Congress
What should happen in every village worldwide
Words are empty without a plan to achieve goal
The FOTO project demonstrates how to reach constitutional right