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SODISheatchlorine
Water sources in Lower Nyakach, Kenya, are tested and treated by solar disinfection (SODIS), heat, and chlorine. Will these procedures make the water safe to drink?
Date(s): July 18, 2011. Album by Bob Metcalf. Photos by Bob Metcalf. 1 - 107 of 107 Total. 1257 Visits.
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Water testing conducted with Friends of the Old (FOTO) staff

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FOTO office located in Katito, Lower Nyakach, Western Kenya

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With FOTO staff and Board members, July, 2011

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Lower Nyakach locations, population ~70,000, ~5,000 grandparents take care of orphaned grandchildren.

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FOTO staff experienced in water testing using Colilert and Petrifilms

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Colilert and Petrfilm tests to use

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L to R: Petrifilm, Whirl Pak, pipette, Colilert tube, UV light for Colilert

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Mary Beth Metcalf and Julie Oliver label tubes and Petrifilms for testing

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Tubes and Petrifilms for initial sample of 11 water sources

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11 drinking water sources collected by FOTO staff

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Ready to start experiment

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Each FOTO staff member assigned to one water source

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Initial sample, 1 Colilert tube, triplicate Petrifilms

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Inoculating Colilert tube, 0 hour

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Each water source added to plastic bottle for Solar Disinfection (SODIS) treatment.

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Bob Metcalf with SODIS bottles. Full sunshine, <1° from equator!

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5 water sources also added to dark, covered pots, placed in Cookit solar cooker to pasteurize water.

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Water Pasteurization Indicator (WAPI) added to solar heated water.

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Water Pasteurization Indicator (WAPI). When water reaches 65°C (149°F), wax melts and falls to the bottom. Water is pasteurized.

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After 3 hours of full sunshine, SODIS bottle sampled.

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SODIS samples at 3 hours, 1 Colilert tube, duplicate Petrifilms

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3 hour sampling of water heated in Cookit, 1 Colilert tube, duplicate Petrifilms

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WAPI wax melted with Nyalunya River water, it's pasteurized, safe to drink.

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WAPI wax melted with E. Nyakach pond water and other heated water sources.

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3 more hours of equatorial sunshine for SODIS bottles

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Collecting SODIS bottles for testing after 6 hours of sunshine

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SODIS tests at 6 hours, 1 Colilert tube and duplicate Petrifilms.

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Inside controls also tested 6 hours, 1 Colilert tube, duplicate Petrifilms

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WaterGuard, Aquaguard, 1.2% sodium hypochlorite

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WaterGuard will be added to 11 SODIS bottles

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3 drops per liter WaterGuard added to SODIS bottles

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Testing free chlorine in SODIS bottles with SenSafe strips

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SenSafe tests for free chlorine

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SenSafe strips before (top) and after thiosulfate added after 15 min.

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Testing chlorine treated samples, 1 Colilert tube, duplicate Petrifilms

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Colilert tubes to incubate on body overnight to obtain results

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Recording results of water tests

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60 Colilert tubes, 120 Petrifilms

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Results!

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E. coli colonies are blue with gas. Other colonies from environmental bacteria.

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Clear = no coliform bacteria. Yellow (ONPG+) = coliform bacteria present, possibly E. coli

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Shine a long-wavelenth UV light on tubes. Blue fluorescence = MUG (+), E. coli is present (right tube). MUG (-), E. coli not present.

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Colilert and Petrifilm tests correlate with risk of disease, WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, 2nd Edition.

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I. Awach River

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I. Awach River results. Heat (Cookit) and chlorine disinfect, SODIS doesn't.

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E. Omondo River

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E. Omondo River results. Chlorine disinfects, SODIS doesn't.

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Omondo River results SODIS vs chlorine

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C. Nyalunya River

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C. Nyalunya River results. Heat and chlorine disinfect. SODIS doesn't

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Nyalunya River results, SODIS vs heat

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K. Asawo River

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K. Asawo River results. SODIS, heat and chlorine = low disease risk.

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F. Turbid pond water

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All F Petrifilms

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F. Rang'ul Pond water results. Heat and chlorine disinfect, SODIS doesn't

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Rang'ul Pond Results SODIS vs heat

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D. Tap Water, Pap Onditi

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D. Tap water results. SODIS and chlorine = low disease risk

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G. North Nyakach tank

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North Nyakach tank results. Low disease risk initially.

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H. East Nyakach turbid pond water

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East Nyakach pond water results. Intermediate risk to start, low risk with SODIS, chlorine

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J. Very turbid Pond Water, Central

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No residual chlorine in turbid Central pond water

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Central Pond Water results. Heat disinfects, SODIS and chlorine don't

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B. West Kabodho pond water

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B. West Kabodho pond water low risk initially

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A. Borehole, Central

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Central Borehole results. SODIS, heat and chlorine = low disease risk

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Petrifilm results - boreholes contaminated. Started chlorine distribution

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Petrifilm results led to distribution of free chlorine to all families, starting in 2012

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Chlorine distribution through village elders

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Village elder with chlorine to distribute in his village

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Recipients of chlorine distribution

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In 2014 FOTO started providing all 42 schools with chlorine

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primary school supply of chlorine

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Safe storage container (left), chlorine on table. "No more diarrhea."

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Taking water testing to communities

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FOTO staff lead 24 water/sanitation sessions each month

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Teaching at primary school

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Testing school's water sources

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Evidence-based microbiology that people understand

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The blue dot means fecal bacteria are in our water source

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Cholera outbreak in region

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Lower Nyakach is a cholera free oasis within the region

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FOTO shirts promote eliminating waterborne diseases

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FOTO 2017 Calendar promotes The Goal is Zero

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Participating in IWA Development Congress

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FOTO project director Dinah Chienjo, Bob, Faustine Odaba

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IWHA booth introducing unique water testing methods

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Delegates shown how to pipette and inoculate tests

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Bob and Dinah's talk - The Goal is Zero!

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Bob introduces water testing methods

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Dinah describes FOTO project to eliminate waterborne diseases

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IWHA present at IWA's 4th Devlopment Congress

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IWHA booth at Congress

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What should happen in every village worldwide

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Words are empty without a plan to achieve goal

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The FOTO project demonstrates how to reach constitutional right

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